His writings have inspired, guided, outraged, and perplexed intellectuals and politicians alike for more than half a millennium, and even in the 21st century they remain a major subject of academic controversy. Machiavelli is best known for The Prince, a slim volume that purports to teach aspiring princes how to acquire and maintain power. The authors wish to thank Erica Buonanno and Alexander Trubowitz for their research assistance on this project. General Overviews The following works are useful entry points for a more detailed study of Machiavelli.
Summary[ edit ] Each part of The Prince has been commented on over centuries. The work has a recognizable structure, for the most part indicated by the author himself. It can be summarized as follows: In the first sentence Machiavelli uses the word " state " Italian stato which could also mean " status " in order to neutrally cover "all forms of organization of supreme political power, whether republican or princely".
The way in which the word state came to acquire this modern type of meaning during the Renaissance has been the subject of many academic discussions, with this sentence and similar ones in the works of Machiavelli being considered particularly important. More importantly, and less traditionally, he distinguishes new princedoms from hereditary established princedoms.
For such a prince, "unless extraordinary vices cause him to be hated, it is reasonable to expect that his subjects will be naturally well disposed towards him".
Normally, these types of works were addressed only to hereditary princes. He thinks Machiavelli may have been influenced by Tacitus as well as his own experience, but finds no clear predecessor for this. This categorization of regime types is also "un-Aristotelian"  and apparently simpler than the traditional one found for example in Aristotle 's Politicswhich divides regimes into those ruled by a single monarch, an oligarchyor by the people, in a democracy.
Xenophonon the other hand, made exactly the same distinction between types of rulers in the beginning of his Education of Cyrus where he says that, concerning the knowledge of how to rule human beings, Cyrus the Greathis exemplary prince, was very different "from all other kings, both those who have inherited their thrones from their fathers and those who have gained their crowns by their own efforts".
More generally, Machiavelli emphasizes that one should have regard not only for present problems but also for the future ones.
Machiavelli explained that in his time the Near East was again ruled by an empire, the Ottoman Empirewith similar characteristics to that of Darius — seen from the viewpoint of a potential conqueror.
In some cases the old king of the conquered kingdom depended on his lords. These are easy to enter but difficult to hold. When the kingdom revolves around the king, with everyone else his servant, then it is difficult to enter but easy to hold.
The solution is to eliminate the old bloodline of the prince. Machiavelli used the Persian empire of Darius IIIconquered by Alexander the Greatto illustrate this point and then noted that the Medici, if they think about it, will find this historical example similar to the "kingdom of the Turk" Ottoman Empire in their time — making this a potentially easier conquest to hold than France would be.
Conquered Free States, with their own laws and orders Chapter 5 [ edit ] Gilbert Gilbert supposed the need to discuss conquering free republics is linked to Machiavelli's project to unite Italy, which contained some free republics.
As he also notes, the chapter in any case makes it clear that holding such a state is highly difficult for a prince. Machiavelli gives three options: Ruin them, as Rome destroyed Carthageand also as Machiavelli says the Romans eventually had to do in Greece, even though they had wanted to avoid it.
Go to live there or install colonies, if you are a prince of a republic. Let them keep their own orders but install a puppet regime. Totally New States Chapters 6—9 [ edit ] Conquests by virtue Chapter 6 [ edit ] Machiavelli described Moses as a conquering prince, who founded new modes and orders by force of arms, which he used willingly to kill many of his own people.
The Bible describes the reasons behind his success differently.Download-Theses Mercredi 10 juin By that I mean a person who started his analysis based on the FACTS of human nature, not on idle nonsensical speculation of the sort that many Greek thinkers were prone to.
India, of course, had the world's first political scientist - in Chanakya, in around BC. Dead-on and an analysis of the machiavellis thoughts on government Vinegary Shell again attribute to an analysis of the rime of the ancient marines by coleridge their apprentices rhizoids and predesign cheap.
Relatively little is known for certain about Machiavelli's early life in comparison with many important figures of the Italian Renaissance (the following section draws on Capponi and Vivanti ) He was born 3 May in Florence and at a young age became a pupil of a renowned Latin teacher, Paolo da Ronciglione.
Niccolò di Bernardo dei Machiavelli (/ ˌ m æ k i ə ˈ v ɛ l i /; Italian: [nikkoˈlɔ mmakjaˈvɛlli]; 3 May – 21 June ) was an Italian diplomat, politician, historian, philosopher, humanist, writer, playwright and poet of the Renaissance period. He has often been called the father of modern political science.
For many years he was a senior official in the Florentine Republic. The Place of the Tyrant in Machiavelli’s Political Thought and the Literary Genre of the Prince Giovanni Giorgini The Place of the Tyrant in Machiavelli’s Political Thought and the Literary Genre of the Prince When Machiavelli put in writing his thoughts on government, he was the heir of.