Review the concepts of classical conditioning, including unconditioned stimulus USconditioned stimulus CSunconditioned response URand conditioned response CR. Explain the roles that extinction, generalization, and discrimination play in conditioned learning. Pavlov Demonstrates Conditioning in Dogs In the early part of the 20th century, Russian physiologist Ivan Pavlov — was studying the digestive system of dogs when he noticed an interesting behavioral phenomenon: The dogs began to salivate when the lab technicians who normally fed them entered the room, even though the dogs had not yet received any food.
By Saul McLeodupdated Classical conditioning also known as Pavlovian conditioning is learning through association and was discovered by Pavlova Russian physiologist. In simple terms two stimuli are linked together to produce a new learned response in a person or animal.
Everything from speech to emotional responses was simply patterns of stimulus and response. Watson denied completely the existence of the mind or consciousness. Watson believed that all individual differences in behavior were due to different experiences of learning.
Classical Conditioning Examples There are three stages of classical conditioning. At each stage the stimuli and responses are given special scientific terms: In this respect, no new behavior has been learned yet.
This stage also involves another stimulus which has no effect on a person and is called the neutral stimulus NS.
The NS could be a person, object, place, etc. The neutral stimulus in classical conditioning does not produce a response until it is paired with the unconditioned stimulus.
During this stage a stimulus which produces no response i. For example, a stomach virus UCS might be associated with eating a certain food such as chocolate CS.
For classical conditioning to be effective, the conditioned stimulus should occur before the unconditioned stimulus, rather than after it, or during the same time. Thus, the conditioned stimulus acts as a type of signal or cue for the unconditioned stimulus. Often during this stage, the UCS must be associated with the CS on a number of occasions, or trials, for learning to take place.
However, one trail learning can happen on certain occasions when it is not necessary for an association to be strengthened over time such as being sick after food poisoning or drinking too much alcohol. Did it also apply to humans? In a famous though ethically dubious experiment, Watson and Rayner showed that it did.
Little Albert was a 9-month-old infant who was tested on his reactions to various stimuli. He was shown a white rat, a rabbit, a monkey and various masks.
Albert described as "on the whole stolid and unemotional" showed no fear of any of these stimuli. However, what did startle him and cause him to be afraid was if a hammer was struck against a steel bar behind his head.
The sudden loud noise would cause "little Albert to burst into tears. When Little Albert was just over 11 months old, the white rat was presented, and seconds later the hammer was struck against the steel bar.
This was done seven times over the next seven weeks, and each time Little Albert burst into tears. By now little Albert only had to see the rat and he immediately showed every sign of fear. He would cry whether or not the hammer was hit against the steel bar and he would attempt to crawl away.
In addition, the Watson and Rayner found that Albert developed phobias of objects which shared characteristics with the rat; including the family dog, a fur coat, some cotton wool and a Father Christmas mask! This process is known as generalization. Watson and Rayner had shown that classical conditioning could be used to create a phobia.
A phobia is an irrational fear, i. Over the next few weeks and months, Little Albert was observed and ten days after conditioning his fear of the rat was much less marked.
This dying out of a learned response is called extinction. However, even after a full month it was still evident, and the association could be renewed by repeating the original procedure a few times.
Classical Conditioning in the Classroom The implications of classical conditioning in the classroom are less important than those of operant conditioningbut there is a still need for teachers to try to make sure that students associate positive emotional experiences with learning.
If a student associates negative emotional experiences with school, then this can obviously have bad results, such as creating a school phobia.
For example, if a student is bullied at school they may learn to associate the school with fear. It could also explain why some students show a particular dislike of certain subjects that continue throughout their academic career.
This could happen if a student is humiliated or punished in class by a teacher.This is “Learning by Association: Classical Conditioning”, section from the book Beginning Psychology (v.
). For details on it (including licensing), click here. This book is licensed under a Creative Commons by-nc-sa license. Pavlov had identified a fundamental associative learning process called classical conditioning.
Classical conditioning refers to learning that occurs when a neutral stimulus (e.g., a tone) becomes associated with a stimulus (e.g., food) that naturally produces a behavior.
After the association is learned, the previously neutral stimulus is sufficient to .
Classical conditioning is a type of learning that had a major influence on the school of thought in psychology known as behaviorism. Discovered by Russian physiologist Ivan Pavlov, classical conditioning is a learning process that occurs through associations between an environmental stimulus and a naturally occurring stimulus.
Developed by the Russian scientist Ivan Pavlov, classical conditioning is the first type of learning wherein an organism responds to an environmental stimulus. Key Concepts.
Several types of learning exist. The most basic form is associative learning, i.e., making a new association between events in the environment .There are two forms of associative learning: classical conditioning (made famous by Ivan Pavlov’s experiments with dogs) and operant conditioning. Classical conditioning differs from operant or instrumental conditioning: in classical conditioning, behaviors are modified through the association of stimuli as described above, whereas in operant conditioning behaviors are modified by the effect they produce (i.e., reward or punishment).