Converging technologies

Radio-frequency identification RFID uses electromagnetic fields to automatically identify and track tags attached to objects. An access control point can be a door, turnstile, parking gate, elevator, or other physical barrier, where granting access can be electronically controlled. Fulfillment The process in which individually separate but related items are grouped, packaged, and supplied together as one unit.

Converging technologies

This led the way to treatments for other genetic diseases and increased interest in germ line gene therapy — therapy affecting the gametes and descendants of patients. Between September and January there were around 2, gene therapy trials conducted or approved.

Cancer vaccine A cancer vaccine is a vaccine that treats existing cancer or prevents the development of cancer in certain high-risk individuals. Vaccines that treat existing cancer are known as therapeutic cancer vaccines.

There are currently no vaccines able to prevent cancer in general. On April 14,Dendreon Corporation announced that their Phase III clinical trial of Provengea cancer vaccine designed to treat prostate cancer, had demonstrated an increase in survival.

Food and Drug Administration FDA approval for use in the treatment of advanced prostate cancer patients on April 29, In vitro meat In vitro meat, also called cultured meat, clean meat, cruelty-free meat, shmeat, and test-tube meat, is an animal-flesh product that has never been part of a living animal with exception of the fetal calf serum taken from a slaughtered cow.

In the 21st century, several research projects have worked on in vitro meat in the laboratory. Some argue that it is less Converging technologies than traditionally obtained meat because it doesn't involve killing and reduces the risk of animal cruelty, while others disagree with eating meat that has not developed naturally.

Nanotechnology and Outline of nanotechnology Nanotechnology sometimes shortened to Converging technologies is the manipulation Converging technologies matter on an atomicmolecularand supramolecular scale.

The earliest, widespread description of nanotechnology [28] [29] referred to the particular technological goal of precisely manipulating atoms and molecules for fabrication of macroscale products, also now referred to as molecular nanotechnology.

A more generalized description of nanotechnology was subsequently established by the National Nanotechnology Initiativewhich defines nanotechnology as the manipulation of matter with at least one dimension sized from 1 to nanometers.

This definition reflects the fact that quantum mechanical effects are important at this quantum-realm scale, and so the definition shifted from a particular technological goal to a research category inclusive of all types of research and technologies that deal with the special properties of matter that occur below the given size threshold.

Robotics and Outline of robotics Robotics is the branch of technology that deals with the design, construction, operation, and application of robots[30] as well as computer systems for their control, sensory feedback, and information processing.

Technological convergence - Wikipedia

A good example of robots which resembles humans is Sophiaa social humanoid robot developed by Hong Kong -based company Hanson Robotics which was activated on April 19, Many of today's robots are inspired by nature contributing to the field of bio-inspired robotics. Stem cell therapy[ edit ] Main article: Stem cell therapy Stem cell therapy is an intervention strategy that introduces new adult stem cells into damaged tissue in order to treat disease or injury.

Many medical researchers believe that stem cell treatments have the potential to change the face of human disease and alleviate suffering. Distributed ledger technology[ edit ] Main articles: Blockchain and Smart contracts Distributed ledger or blockchain technology is a technology which provides transparent and immutable lists of transactions.

Blockchains can enable autonomous transactions through the use of smart contracts. Smart contracts are self-executing transactions which occur when pre-defined conditions are met. The original idea of a smart contract was conceived by Nick Szabo in [33] but these original theories about how these smart contracts could work remained unrealised because there was no technology to support programmable agreements and transactions between parties.

His example of a smart contract was the vending machine that holds goods until money has been received and then the goods are released to the buyer. The machine holds the property and is able to enforce the contract. There were two main issues that needed to be addressed before smart contracts could be used in the real world.

Firstly, the control of physical assets by smart contracts to be able to enforce agreements.

Converging technologies

Secondly, the last of trustworthy computers that are reliable and trusted to execute the contract between two or more parties. It is only with the advent of cryptocurrency and encryption that the technology for smart contracts has come to fruition.

Many potential applications of smart contracts have been suggested that go beyond the transfer of value from one party to another, such as supply chain management, electronic voting, law and the internet of things. Some of the sources of these resources are described below Research and development[ edit ] Research and development is directed towards the advancement of technology in general, and therefore includes development of emerging technologies.

See also List of countries by research and development spending. Applied research is a form of systematic inquiry involving the practical application of science.

Converging technologies

It accesses and uses some part of the research communities' the academia's accumulated theories, knowledge, methods, and techniques, for a specific, often state- business- or client-driven purpose. Science policy is the area of public policy which is concerned with the policies that affect the conduct of the science and research enterprise, including the funding of science, often in pursuance of other national policy goals such as technological innovation to promote commercial product development, weapons development, health care and environmental monitoring.

Department of Defense responsible for the development of emerging technologies for use by the military. Its purpose was to formulate and execute research and development projects to expand the frontiers of technology and science, with the aim to reach beyond immediate military requirements.

Projects funded by DARPA have provided significant technologies that influenced many non-military fields, such as the Internet and Global Positioning System technology.

Technology competitions and awards[ edit ] There are awards that provide incentive to push the limits of technology generally synonymous with emerging technologies. Note that while some of these awards reward achievement after-the-fact via analysis of the merits of technological breakthroughs, others provide incentive via competitions for awards offered for goals yet to be achieved.

Inunderdog Charles Lindbergh won the prize in a modified single-engine Ryan aircraft called the Spirit of St.With a culture of integrity, accountability & service, Convergint is committed to being our customers' best service provider.

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Converging Technologies Nanotechnology, Biotechnology, Information Technology and Cognitive Science. Reports. The graphics in the pdf files have been down sampled to create smaller file sizes. Printed graphics from these files do not reflect the quality of the graphics that are in the final printed report.

Converging Technologies for Improving Human Performance: Nanotechnology, Biotechnology, Information Technology and Cognitive Science [Mihail C. Roco, William Sims Bainbridge] on *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. M. C. Roco and W.S. Bainbridge In the early decades of the 21st century, concentrated efforts can .

‘Converging Technology’ is viewed as the integration of nanotechnology, biotechnology, information technology and cognitive science.

This article gives an overview of the subject, and considers the different viewpoints offered by the US Government, the European Community and environmentalist groups. Emerging technologies are those technical innovations which represent progressive developments within a field for competitive advantage; converging technologies represent previously distinct fields which are in some way moving towards stronger inter-connection and similar goals.

However, the opinion on the degree of the impact, status and. Read chapter 4 Emerging and Converging Technologies: An International Perspective on Advancing Technologies and Strategies for Managing Dual-Use Risks: Re.

Converging Technologies - a Definition and an Overview of Some Different Viewpoints